Контрольная работа по английскому языку N220

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ВАРИАНТ 1. 
I. Прочитайте и устно переведите на русский язык весь текст. 

JOSEPH LISTER 
(1827 -1912) 
1. Joseph Lister was an English surgeon and pioneer of antisepsis. 
2. Working at Edinburgh, he was also appointed a professor of clinical surgery at Glasgow, where he was one of the few to understand the implications of Louis Pasteur recent work on fermentation and the beginnings of the germ theory. 
3. When Joseph Lister was a student at Edinburgh, he decided not only to practice medicine, but also to conduct research to improve medical knowledge. 4. Lister’s research required considerable sacrifice and dedication, as it was undertaken at night after a full working day in the hospital. 
5. In Edinburgh Hospital where Lister worked, almost half of the surgery patients died from infections. 6. Surgeons thought that it could nothing be done about these infections, because they arose spontaneously inside the wound. 7. In order to prevent infection Lister began to search the solution of the most actual problem of that time. 8. He studied the work of European bacteriologists, notably that of Louis Pasteur. 9. When he read Pasteur’s work on germs he immediately applied Pasteur’s thinking to the problem he investigated. 10. He concluded that inflammation was the result of germs entering and developing in the wound. 11. Since Pasteur’s sterilization by heat could not be applied to the living organism, Lister sought a chemical substance to destroy the germs. 12. He learned that carbolic acid was used as an effective disinfectant and could be safely used for human body. 
13. Facilities for washing hands or the patient’s wounds did not exist and it was even considered unnecessary for the surgeon to wash his hands before he saw patient. 14. Lister was of another opinion, he used carbolic acid to wash his hands, his instruments and the bandages used in the operation. 
15. The more he used these techniques the more sufficient data to show that his methods were a success Lister had. 16. This led to the rise of sterile surgery. 17. Some consider Lister “the father of modern antisepsis”. 
18 However, widespread acceptance of Lister’s procedure was rather slow, as is often the case with revolutionary new ideas. 
19. Joseph Lister’s behavior with his patients was quite a contrast to those surgeons who believed that such involvement would somehow lessen the respect of patients to their doctors. 20. Over the next 12 years Lister continued to develop new surgical techniques by applying his antiseptic principle. 21. In 1880 he introduced catgut for internal stitches. as this would subsequently dissolve. 22. In later years, Joseph Lister was given he most prestigious positions by the scientific community in recognition of his contribution to medicine.     

Пояснения к тексту 
sacrifice – самопожертвование
catgut – нить кетгут

Выполните следующие задания письменно. 
II.Выберите информацию, которая соответствует содержанию текста: 
The text is about: 
a) Joseph Lister’s education at Edinburgh University; 
b) Surgery in Joseph Lister ’s time; 
c) Joseph Lister’s contribution into world medicine; 
d) Joseph Lister’s work at the hospital. 

III. а) Напишите номера вопросов, на которые нет ответов в тексте. 
в) Найдите в тексте ответы на остальные вопросы, перепишите ответы и переведите их на русский язык. 
1. Where was Joseph Lister born? 
2. What were the Joseph Lister’s parents ? 
3. Where did Joseph Lister study? 
4. Why did Joseph Lister’s research require considerable sacrifice and 
dedication ? 
5. What paper did Joseph Lister publish? 
6. Why did future surgeons know little about the structure of the human 
body? 
7. What were operations like in Joseph Lister’s days? 
8. What contribution did Joseph Lister make to the organic chemistry? 
9. What field of surgery did Joseph Lister work in? 
10. What is the significance of Joseph Lister in the field of surgery and hospital practice? 

IV. а) Выпишите из данных предложений предложение, где слово, оформленное окончанием “s” служит показателем 3-го лица ед. числа глагола в Present Simple Active. Предложение переведите. (Образец выполнения № 1 ) 
1. The supplies of deposits of the earth surface are not equal. 
2. The chemist’s shop supplies patients with medicines of Russian and foreign make. 
3. The supply of chemist’s shops with medicines and medical goods is of great importance. 

б) признаком множественного числа имени существительного. Предложение переведите . 
1. The temperature often changes the state of human body. 
2. The change of temperature was studied by the meteorologists in winter last year. 
3. The changes of temperature have influenced the properties of substance. 

в) Выпишите из текста предложение, где слово, оформленное окончанием “s” служит показателем притяжательного падежа имени существительного. Предложение переведите.

V. а) Выпишите из текста предложение, содержащее сравнительную конструкцию the … the …. Предложение переведите. 
( Образец выполнения № 2 ) 

б) Выпишите из текста предложение с прилагательными в превосходной степени. Напишите это прилагательное в положительной и сравнительной степени с переводом. Предложение переведите. 
в) Напишите перевод следующих прилагательных, подчеркните суффиксы, с помощью которых они образованы. 
essential, surgical, incurable, hopeless, painless, numerous; sufficient. 

г) Напишите в три колонки номера прилагательных: 
а) в положительной степени; в) в сравнительной степени; 
с) в превосходной степени. 

1. dark; 2. heavier; 3. more difficult; 4. shorter; 5. least; 6. little; 7. the best; 
8. the most important; 9. weakest; 10. more; 11. the brightest; 
12. sensitive. 


VI. а) Перепишите существительные, подчеркните суффиксы, при помощи которых они образованы, переведите.

physician, treatment, opportunity, surgery, complication, structure; supervision. 

в) Определите какой частью речи являются ниже перечисленные слова, например, a) 0 , …….; b) ……; 
a) существительные; b) прилагательные; 
0. absorption; 
1. translation; 2. movement; 3. powerful; 4. scientific; 5. pressure; 
6. capable; 7. teacher; 8. solution; 9. medicinal; 10. technology; 11. scientist; 12. nature; 13. attentive; 14. temperature; 15. importance; 16. special. 

VII. Выпишите из текста по одному предложению со сказуемым в Past Simple Active, Past Simple Passive. Подчеркните глагол сказуемое и определите его видовременную форму и залог; напишите форму инфинитива. Предложения переведите. 
(Образец выполнения №3) 

VIII. Перепишите и переведите на русский язык следующие предложения, обращая внимание на слова-заместители. 

1. The regime of the work of the specialized pharmacies is the same as those of the traditional pharmacies. 
2. The students study both general subjects and special ones. 
3. The role of the pharmacist has changed from that of a compounder and supplier of pharmaceutical goods to a provider of services and information. 
4. Oxygen plays as great role in vital activities as hydrogen does. 
5. The practice of pharmacy is a new one in contrast to that pharmacists had some years ago. 
IX. Выберите правильный вариант ответа, Предложения с оборотом there+be перепишите и переведите: 
1. There … information about the rules for drug taking in the next bulletin. 
a) is b) was c) will be
2. There … still no drug for the treatment of this disease last year. 
a ) is b) were c) was 

ВАРИАНТ 2. 
I. Прочитайте и устно переведите на русский язык весь текст. 

LOUIS PASTEUR 
(1822 – 1896) 
1. Louis Pastuer was a French chemist and microbiologist best known as one of the founders of germ theory and bacteriology. 2. He found a key to make medicine a science as well as an art. 
3. For thousands of years before Pasteur, doctors were helpless in the face of disease. 4. It was believed that only symptoms could be treated, not the cause of the disease and the diluted drug solution were used. 5. This system was the main obstacle to the progress of medicinal chemistry. 6. Finally this theory was completely reversed by Louis Pasteur. 7. He thought that all diseases are caused by pathogenic parasites. 8. From that time Pasteur directed all his experimental work toward the problem of immunization and applied this principal to many diseases. 9. It is often said that English surgeon Erdward Jenner discovered vaccination and that Louis Pasteur invented vaccines. 10. These discoveries revolutionized work in infectious diseases. 11. Pasteur focused on microbial origin of disease. 12. His investigations of animals infected by pathogenic microbes and his studies of the microbial mechanisms that cause harmful physiological effects in animals made him a pioneer in the field of infectious pathology. 13. In 1882 Louis Pasteur decided to attack the problem of rabies. 
14. The more mysterious origin of this horrible disease was the more it fascinated imagination of people for centuries. 15. As the microbe that caused rabies was the smallest one, that could be seen under Pasteur’s microscope, experimentation with the disease demanded the development of new methodologies. 16. Pasteur conducted his experiments using rabbits and transmitted the infectious agent from animal to animal until he obtained a stable preparation. 17. In 1885 Pasteur vaccinated a nine-year-old boy who was bitten by a rabid dog. 18. The vaccine was so successful that it brought immediate glory and fame to Louis Pasteur. 19. Hundreds of other bite victims throughout the world were saved by Pasteur’s vaccine, and the era of preventive medicine began. 
20. Another thing Louis Pasteur did was the invention of method to stop milk and wine from causing sickness. 21. The process of gentle heating was given the name pasteurization and it saved the French wine industry. 
22. Later it was also adapted to milk production, to juice preservation and to many other food preservation technologies. 
23. During Pasteur’s career, he touched on many problems, throughout his life he was an effective observer and understood that future would belong to those who made much for suffering humanity. 

Пояснения к тексту: 
problem of rabies –проблема бешенства 
rabid - бешеный 
sickness – порча (закисание) вина, молока и др. 

Выполните следующие задания письменно. 
II. Выберите информацию, которая соответствует содержанию текста: 
The text is about: a) What specialists thought about the cause of disease; 
b) Louis Pasteur’s work in the field of medicinal 
chemistry; 
c) Louis Pasteur’s scientific activity at the university; 
d) The discovery of vaccination by English surgeon 
Erdward Jenner. 

III. а) Напишите номера вопросов, на которые нет ответов в тексте. 
в) Найдите в тексте ответы на остальные вопросы перепишите их и переведите на русский язык. 
1. When was Louis Pasteur born? 
2. What field of science was he engaged in? 
3. In what way could disease be treated? 
4. Why were doctors helpless in the face of disease? 
5. Who reversed the theory of treatment with diluted solutions? 
6. What discovery revolutionized work in the infectious diseases? 
7. What animals did he infect during his investigations? 
8. What field of science did Pasteur become pioneer in? 
9. Why did he decide to attack the problem of rabies? 
10. What contribution did Louis Pasteur make to medicine? 

IV. Выпишите из данных предложений предложение, где слово, оформленное окончанием “s” служит: a) показателем 3-го лица ед. числа глагола в Present Simple Active. Предложение переведите.. (Образец выполнения № 1 ) 
1. Physical properties include melting and boiling points. 
2. Magnetic needle always points in the direction of the North Pole. 
3. All points of view were taken into account. 
б) признаком множественного числа имени существительного. Предложение переведите. 
1. This process will prevent the formation of impurities. 
2. This new computer stores and processes vast quantities of 
information. 
3. The chemist is able to improve natural processes or synthesize 
substances unknown in nature. 
с) выпишите из текста предложение, где слово, оформленное окончанием “s” служит показателем притяжательного падежа имени существительного. Предложение переведите. 

V. а) Выпишите из текста предложение, содержащее сравнительную конструкцию the … the …. Предложение переведите 
( Образец выполнения № 2 ) 
б) Выпишите из текста предложение с прилагательным в превосходной степени. Напишите это прилагательное в положительной и сравнительной степени с переводом. Предложение переведите. 
в) Напишите перевод следующих прилагательных, подчеркните суффиксы, с помощью которых они образованы. 

progressive; social; significant; wonderful; capable; homeless. 

г) Напишите в три колонки номера прилагательных 
а) в положительной степени; в) в сравнительной степени; 
с) в превосходной степени. 
1. the most comfortable; 2. better; 3. medical; 4. many; 5. more attentive; 6. the best; 7. the most useful; 8. more abundant; 9. more; 
10. stronger; 11. the smallest; 12. bad; 

VI. а) Перепишите существительные, подчеркните суффиксы, при помощи которых они образованы, переведите.
education; influence; experience; consciousness, thinker; scientist; cleverness.
б) Определите какой частью речи являются ниже перечисленные слова, например, a) 0 , …….; b) ……; 
a) существительные; b) прилагательные; 
0. absorption; 

1. researcher; 2. physiological; 3. social; 4. lecturer; 5. powerful; 
6. freedom; 7. capable; 8. ability; 9. pharmacist ; 10. profession; 
11. communicative; 12. organism; 13. attentive; 14. department; 
15. solution; 16. sufficient; 17. possibility. 

VII. Выпишите из текста по одному предложению со сказуемым в Past Simple Active Past Simple Passive. Подчеркните глагол - сказуемое и определите его видовременную форму и залог; напишите форму инфинитива. Предложения переведите. 
( Образец выполнения 3) 

VIII. Перепишите и переведите на русский язык следующие предложения, обращая внимание на слова-заместители. 

1. The future student attended the preparatory courses as his friend did last year. 
2. Pharmacists study the demand for medicines as thoroughly as doctors do. 
3. Knowledge of chemical properties of substance is so important as the 
physical ones. 
4. Adverse reactions to this injection were the same as those for other 
corticosteroids. 
5. The climate of Great Britain differs from that on the continent. 

IX. Выберите правильный вариант ответа. Предложения с оборотом there+be перепишите и переведите: 
1. There … always recommendations not to exceed prescribed doses. 
a) is b) are c) will be
2. Earlier there … wooden houses in our city. 
a) was b) were c) will be 

ВАРИАНТ 3. 
I. Прочитайте и устно переведите на русский язык весь текст. 

ANTOINE LAURENT LAVOISIER 
(1743-1794) 
1. Great French scientist Antoine Laurent Lavoisier was noted for the ideas which produced revolution in the natural science of 18th century. 
2. Antoine Laurent Lavoisier was a son of wealthy Parisian lawyer. 
3. After the course of training at the school of law he received bachelor’s degree and became the lawyer too. 4. But within two years he wanted to know as much as possible about science. 5. Some of the scientific works which passed through his hands aroused his interest to science. 6. He paid much attention to mathematics, astronomy, chemistry and botany. 
7. During his lifetime Lavoisier carried out more than two thousand difficult experiments and made countless valuable discoveries in chemistry. 8. Lavoisier experimented all the time and based his theories on those facts which he could establish and test practically in the laboratory. 9. His scientific and practical activity led him to the discovery of oxygen. 
10. Lavoisier achieved great results in the research of air. 11. In 1783 he continued Pristley’s work on role of oxygen in combustion and respiration. 12. Lavoisier considered air as the result of mixture of gases with different properties. 
13. He explained the composition of water as the product of combining hydrogen and oxygen. 14. The more Lavoisier studied such concepts as earth, air, fire and water, the more he was agree with the opinion of Greek scientists. 15. For this and other work Antoine Laurent Lavoisier is considered to be the father of modern chemistry. 
16. Lavoisier was active in political life, and devoted much of his career to public service. 17. From 1768 to 1790 he worked in French government in the areas of economics, agriculture and education. 
18. Lavoisier was the most experienced chemist; he first showed the significance of the respiratory process in relation to food. 19. According to Lavoisier living organisms take food and food in its turn maintains life and all the activities of organism. 
20. The research work of Antoine Laurent Lavoisier was of great importance and was continued by many scientists all over the world. 21. It took over a hundred years before nutrition was recognized as a new science. 

Выполните следующие задания письменно. 
II. Выберите информацию , которая соответствует содержанию текста: 
Text is about: a) the education of Antoine Laurent Lavoisier; 
b) the scientific works published in journals; 
c) the contribution of Lavoisier to 
chemistry; 
d) the development of science in the twentieth 
century. 
III. а) Напишите номера вопросов, на которые нет ответов в тексте. 
в) Найдите в тексте ответы на остальные вопросы перепишите ответы и переведите их на русский язык. 
1. What was Antoine Laurent Lavoisier ? 
2. What specialty did Lavoisier get in the course of training? 
3. Where did Lavoisier receive higher education? 
4. Why did he pay attention to science? 
5. What led Lavoisier to the discovery of oxygen? 
6. What were the titles of the works written by Lavoisier? 
7. Why is Lavoisier considered to be the father of modern chemistry ? 
8. What did Lavoisier devote his career to? 
9. What discoveries did Lavoisier make in the field of agriculture? 
10. What concept was accepted as science many years later? 
IV. a) Выпишите из данных предложений предложение, где слово, оформленное окончанием “s” служит показателем 3-го лица ед. числа глагола в Present Simple Active. Предложение переведите. (Образец выполнения № 1 ) 
1. The function of the heart is to pump blood through the body. 
2. It is important to understand the functions of different parts of brain. 
3. The special laboratory equipment functions normally. 
в) признаком множественного числа имени существительного. Предложение переведите . 
1. Any material changes when it is heated. 
2. The most interesting changes were taking place when we raised the temperature above 60ºC. 
3. In the gaseous state water changes into steam and in solid state it 
becomes ice. 
в) Выпишите из текста предложение, где слово, оформленное окончанием “s” служит показателем притяжательного падежа имени существительного. Предложение переведите. 

V. a) Выпишите из текста предложение, содержащее сравнительную конструкцию the … the …. Предложение переведите 
(Образец выполнения № 2 ) 
б) Выпишите из текста 1 предложение с прилагательным в превосходной степени. Напишите это прилагательное в положительной и сравнительной степенях с переводом. Предложение переведите. 
в) Напишите перевод следующих прилагательных, подчеркните суффиксы, с помощью которых они образованы. 
countless, valuable, excellent, artificial, sedative, reddish 
г) напишите в три колонки номера прилагательных : 
а) в положительной степени; в) в сравнительной степени; 
с) в превосходной степени. 
1. greater; 2. less skillful; 3. more active; 4. the largest; 5. less; 
6. more expensive; 7. the most abundant; 8. useful; 9. high; 10. the most remarkable; 11. correct; 12. lower 

VI. а) Напишите перевод следующих существительных, подчеркните суффиксы, при помощи которых они образованы.
childhood, relationship, communication, treatment, difference, agriculture, illness 
б) Определите какой частью речи являются ниже перечисленные слова, например, a) 0 , …….; b) ……; 
a) существительные; b) прилагательные; 
0. absorption; 
1. definition; 2. difference, 3. harmless; 4. various; 5. temperature; 
6. specific; 7. botanist; 8. similarity; 9. metallic; 10. measurement; 
11. possible; 12.available; 13. researcher; 14. greenish; 15. exposure; 
16. gaseous; 17. mineralogist. 
VII. Перепишите и переведите на русский язык следующие предложения, обращая внимание на слова -заместители. 
1. The profession of pharmacist demands as much knowledge as the profession of doctor does. 
2. The scientist applied chromatographic method for sugars in his research work as his colleague did. 
3. Medicines are prepared from raw materials of plant origin and the animal one. 
4. The results of this work are better than those achieved last year. 
5. Students paid much attention both to general subjects and special ones. 

VIII. Выпишите из текста 1 предложение со сказуемым в Past Simple Active и 1 предложение в Past Simple Passive. Подчеркните глагол- сказуемое и определите его видовременную форму и залог; напишите форму инфинитива. Предложения переведите. 
( Образец выполнения №3) 

IX.Выберите правильный вариант ответа. Предложения с оборотом there+be: перепишите и переведите: 
1. There … a heavy rain last night. 
a) were b) will be c) was 
2. There … a caution to keep medicines out of reach of children. 
a) are b) is c) will be 


ВАРИАНТ 4. 
I. Прочитайте и устно переведите на русский язык весь текст. 

ALEXANDER FLEMING. 
(1881 - 1955) 
1. The Scottish bacteriologist Alexander Fleming is the well known for his discovery of penicillin. 2. It was the greatest contribution of medicinal science ever made to humanity. 
3. Alexander Fleming was born in Scotland in August in 1881. 4. Nature was considered by him as the first and the best teacher. 5. Nature developed his power of observations and taught him to apply and to act according to observations. 
6. Like many Scotts Alexander Fleming left his native land for better career opportunities. 7. In 1895 he went to  London where he decided to dedicate his life to medicine. 8. He chose a career in bacteriology. 9. Alexander Fleming assisted Almroth Wright, the founder of vaccinotherapy. 10. Almroth Wright was the first to use vaccines on human beings. 11. Under the influence of Almroth Wright Fleming became interested in bacterial action and antibacterial drugs. 12. The more knowledge Fleming obtained in the fields of anatomy, bacteriology the more he was sure in the right choice of his profession. 13. The need for further research in these fields excited his mind. 
14. After graduating from the London University Alexander Fleming was considered as outstanding as he was able to become a member of teaching and research staff of St. Mary’s hospital. 
15. After military service he returned to laboratory work and was engaged in developing antiseptics. 16. Fleming conducted experiments that later focused his attention to the properties of penicillin. 17. The leitmotiv of Fleming’s career was his search for a chemical substance which would destroy infections bacteria without destroying tissues or weakening the body’s defenses. 18. Once Fleming noted that his experiment was ruined by an accident. 19. Fleming noted that on a culture plate of staphylococci a mould which was introduced by accidental contamination had dissolved the colonies of staphylococci. 20. He found that the bacterial substance produced by the mould was unstable and rapidly lost its activity. 21 The blue mould was in fact the natural form of penicillin which Fleming realized was an effective way of killing bacteria. 22. A few years later, penicillin was mass-produced. 23. The accident led to one of the greatest medical discoveries of modern times. 
24. Alexander Fleming’s discovery of penicillin did more to help suffering people than anything else for centuries. 

Выполните следующие задания письменно. 
II. Выберите информацию, которая соответствует содержанию текста: 
Text is about: 
a) the school years of Alexander Fleming; 
b) the scientific activity of Alexander Fleming; 
с) the pedagogical activity of Alexander Fleming; 
d) the contribution of Alexander Fleming’s to chemistry 

III. а) Напишите номера вопросов, на которые нет ответов в тексте. 
в) Найдите в тексте ответы на остальные вопросы, перепишите ответы и переведите их на русский язык. 
1. When was Alexander Fleming born? 
2. Who were his parents? 
3. Why did he go to London in 1895? 
4. What field of medicine did Fleming choose his career in? 
5. What did Fleming publish under the influence of Almroth Wright ? 
6. When did Fleming graduate from the University? 
7. What discoveries were made by scientists in 1914? 
8. What problem was Fleming concerned with? 
9. How did Fleming discover penicillin? 
10. What contribution did Fleming make to physiology? 

IV. a) Выпишите из данных предложений предложение, где слово, оформленное окончанием “s” служит показателем 3-го лица ед. числа глагола в Present Simple Active. Предложение перевeдите. (Образец выполнения № 1 ) 
1. Scientists publish their works in scientific journals. 
2. Scientist works in the chemical laboratory very often. 
3. Works of outstanding scientists are often referred to. 

б) Признаком множественного числа имени существительного. Предложение переведите. 
1. Inquiry office studies the demands for medicines and medical goods. 
2. Pharmacist’s work demands the ability to communicate with all types of people. 
3. Research work always demands great attention and accuracy. 

в) Выпишите из текста предложение, где слово, оформленное окончанием “s” служит показателем притяжательного падежа имени существительного. Предложение переведите. 

V. а) Выпишите из текста предложение, содержащее сравнительную конструкцию the … the …. Предложение переведите на русский язык. 
(Образец выполнения № 2 ) 

б) Выпишите из текста 1 предложение, с прилагательным в превосходной степени. Напишите это прилагательное в положительной и сравнительной степени с переводом. Предложениe переведите. 
в) Напишите перевод следующих прилагательных, подчеркните суффиксы, с помощью которых они образованы. 
dangerous, available; concomitant; odourless, reddish; expensive. 

VI. а) Перепишите следующие существительные, подчеркните суффиксы, при помощи которых они образованы, переведите.
education; influence; experience; consciousness, thinker; scientist; cleverness. 
б) Напишите в три колонки номера прилагательных 
а) в положительной степени; в) в сравнительной степени; 
с) в превосходной степени.
1. better; 2. more serious; 3. higher; 4. the most useful; 
5. many; 6. less; 7. the finest; 8. great; 9. smaller; 10. more important; 11. the most reactive. 

в) Определите какой частью речи являются ниже перечисленные слова, например, a) 0 , …….; b) ……; 
a) существительные; b) прилагательные; 
0. absorption; 

1. infusion; 2. sufficient; 3. indicator; 4. property; 5. absorption; 
6. appearance; 7. aqueous; 8. accuracy; 9. accurate; 10. therapeutic; 
11. biological; 12. essential; 13. pregnancy; 14. dosage; 15. responsible; 16. specialist; 17. harmless 

VII. Перепишите и переведите на русский язык следующие предложения, обращая внимание на слова-заместители. 
1. The liquid state of substance as well as the solid one depends upon the temperature and pressure. 
2. The therapeutic effect lasts as long as the period of storage does. 
3. Some physical properties of oxygen are the same as those of hydrogen. 
4. Alexander Fleming made as much contribution to medicine as 
Lavoisier did to chemistry. 
5. The pharmaceutical education in the Great Britain differs from that in Russia. 

VIII. Выпишите из текста 1 предложение со сказуемым в Past Simple Active и 1 в Past Simple Passive. Подчеркните глагол- сказуемое и определите его видовременную форму и залог; напишите форму инфинитива. Предложения переведите. 
( Образец выполнения 3) 
VIII. Выберите правильный вариант ответа. Предложения с оборотом there+be перепишите и переведите: 

1. There … no suitable conditions for studying these 
phenomena recently. 
a) were b) was c) are 
2. There … homeopathic pharmacies with medicines of plant and animal origin soon. 
a) are b) will be c) were 


ВАРИАНТ 5. 
I. Прочитайте и устно переведите на русский язык весь текст. 

ERDWARD JENNER 
(1749-1823) 
1. The English physician Erdward Jenner introduced vaccination against smallpox. 2. His curiosity about natural phenomena and dedication to medicine earned him status as a pioneer of virology and immunology, as well as the founder of the preventive medicine. 
3. In 1770 young Jenner went to London to study surgery and anatomy under the surgeon, anatomist and naturalist John Hunter. 4. John Hunter was a noted experimentalist and a member of Royal Society. 5. He recommended Jenner for the position of naturalist but Jenner chose the medical career. 6. Hunter’s experimental methods, insistence on exact observations resulted in Jenner’s introduction of vaccination. 
7. Practice inoculation reached England by the 18th century. 8. Despite of the risk of inoculation people wanted to be vaccinated as quicker as possible. 9. Although inoculation aided in the prevention of the disease it was dangerous. 10. During Jenner’s lifetime, smallpox was a common and often fatal disease. 11. Due to observations young physician Jenner put forward theory about the prevention of smallpox. 12. Dairy workers often suffered from cowpox, a disease like smallpox only milder. 13. Earlier cases of cowpox seemed Jenner immune to the most severe infection. 14. The more Jenner was sure in his observations the quicker he wanted to obtain immunity to smallpox. 
15. Jenner removed the fluid of cowpox from dairymaid and inoculated an eight-year old boy. 16. Six weeks later he inoculated the boy with smallpox. 17. The boy was healthy. 18. Jenner proved his theory and called it vaccination. 19. The demand for the vaccine increased and Jenner was honoured and respected throughout Europe and the United States. 20. Nearly two centuries after Jenner’s experimental vaccination of young boy the World Health Organization (WHO) declared smallpox to be eradicated. 

Пояснение 
to eradicate - искоренять 

Выполните следующие задания письменно. 
II.Выберите информацию, которая соответствует содержанию текста: 
This text is about: a) childhood of Erdward Jenner; 
b) education of Erdward Jenner at the University; 
c) Jenner’s contribution to medicine; 
d) Jenner‘s contribution to chemistry. 
III. а) Напишите номера вопросов, на которые нет ответов в тексте. 
б) Найдите в тексте ответы на остальные вопросы, перепишите ответы и переведите их на русский язык. 
1. What did the English physician Erdward Jenner introduce? 
2. What helped Erdward Jenner to earn the status of a pioneer 
of virology and immunology? 
3. What were Erdward Jenner’s parents? 
4. When and where was Erdward Jenner born? 
5. Why did Jenner go to London in 1770? 
6. What was John Hunter? 
7. How did Erdward Jenner influence upon the culture of the 18th century? 
8. What disease was fatаl in the 18th century? 
9. What theory did Jenner put forward in chemistry? 
10.How did Jenner call the method of prevention of smallpox? 

IV.a) Выпишите из данных предложений предложение, где слово, оформленное окончанием “s” служит показателем 3-го лица ед. числа глагола в Present Simple Active. Предложение переведите . (Образец выполнения № 1 ) 
1. All groups of medicines are kept on shelves protected from 
light. 
2. Students of different groups were invited to the dean’s office. 
3. The investigator always groups all substances according to their chemical and physical properties. 
б) Признаком множественного числа имени существительного. Предложение переведите. 
1. Carbon like hydrogen and oxygen forms a great number of 
compounds. 
2. The first life forms developed in the waters of the earth. 
3. The video-telephone forms a new convenient type of communication system. 

в) Выпишите из текста предложение, где слово, оформленное окончанием “s” служит показателем притяжательного падежа имени существительного. Предложение переведите. 

V. а) Выпишите из текста предложение, содержащее сравнительную конструкцию the … the …. Предложение переведите 
(Образец выполнения № 2 ) 

б) Выпишите из текста предложение с прилагательным в превосходной степени. Напишите это прилагательное в положительной и сравнительной степени с переводом. Предложение переведите. 
в) Напишите перевод следующих прилагательных, подчеркните суффиксы, с помощью которых они образованы. 

artificial; harmless; dangerous; expensive; responsible; bluish; persistent 

г) Напишите в три столбика номера прилагательных 
а) в положительной степени; в) в сравнительной степени; 
с) в превосходной степени. 

1. cold; 2. the longest; 3. stranger; 4. the most considerable; 5. more significant; 6. the least; 7. more; 8. important; 9. short; 10. the youngest; 11. more famous; 12. popular. 

VI. а) Перепишите существительные, подчеркните суффиксы, при помощи которых они образованы, переведите.

inoculation; insistence; curiosity; experimentalist; immunology; preference; pressure; assortment; relationship; temperature; assistance; . 

в) Определите какой частью речи являются ниже перечисленные слова, например, a) 0 , …….; b) ……; 
a) существительные; b) прилагательные; 
0. absorption; 
1.conventional; 2.bluish; 3.protective; 4.dependence; 5. childhood; 6.suitable; 7.viscous; 8. improvement; 9. maintenance; 10. possible; 11.supervision; 12. mixture; 13.storage; 14.pressure; 15. sufficient; 16.hepatic. 

VII. Выпишите из текста 1 предложение со сказуемым в Past Simple Active и 1 в Past Simple Passive. Подчеркните глагол- сказуемое и определите его видовременную форму и залог; напишите форму инфинитива. Предложения переведите. 
(Образец выполнения №3) 

VIII. Перепишите и переведите на русский язык следующие предложения, обращая внимание на словa-заместители. 
1. Sport plays important role in life as the correct nutrition does. 
2. Students take exams in written form and in the oral one. 
3. Elderly people have more difficulties in swallowing tablets than the young ones. 
4. Chemical research for obtaining new compounds of this substance proceeds more rapidly at present than that was before. 
5. The assortment of medicines of prescription department differs considerably from that of the chemist’s department. 

IX. Выберите правильный вариант ответа. Предложения с оборотом there+be перепишите и переведите: 

1. Usually there … two methods of purification of water: 
filtration and distillation. 
a) are b)is c) will be 
2. There … special glassware for determination of boiling 
and melting points in the chemical laboratory last time. 
a) were b) was c) is 
  
КОНТРОЛЬНАЯ РАБОТА № 2 

Методические рекомендации по выполнению работы 
Содержание работы 

Для того, чтобы правильно выполнить задание №2, необходимо усвоить следующие разделы курса английского языка по рекомендованному учебнику: 
1. Видовременные формы глагола изъявительного наклонения 
а) действительный залог (The Active Voice ) Present, Past, Future (Continuous) 
б) страдательный залог ( Passive Voice ) Present, Past, Future (Continuous). 
2. Простые неличные формы глагола: инфинитив 
- ( активный и пассивный залог в функции подлежащего, определения, дополнения, обстоятельства, части составного именного сказуемого); причастие 1 ( в функции определения, обстоятельства, составной части - сказуемого). 
- Participle II. 
3. Значение глаголов to be, to have, to do, 
4. Определительные и дополнительные придаточные предложения (союзные и бессоюзные). 

Образец выполнения 1 (к упр. 2) 
1. То distinguish the iodine solution from the bromine solution we must use starch. 
to distinguish - инфинитив в функции обстоятельства цели. 
Для того, чтобы отличить раствор йода от раствора брома, мы должны использовать крахмал. 
2. The text to be read is very difficult. 
to be read - Indefinite Infinitive Passive в функции определения. 
Текст, который нужно перевести, очень трудный. 
3. Our task was to remove all the impurities from the liquid. 
to remove -инфинитив в функции части составного именного 
сказуемого - was to remove. 
Нашей задачей было удаление всех примесей из этой жидкости. 
4. То obtain a substance with the desired properties was necessary. 
to obtain - инфинитив в функции подлежащего. 
Получение вещества с нужными свойствами было необходимо. 

Образец выполнения 2 (к упр. 3) 
1. Be careful when using this substance. 
(When) using - Participle I в функции обстоятельства 
Будь осторожен, используя это вещество. 
2. The scientist working at this problem made an interesting report. 
working - Participle I в функции определения 
Ученый, работающий над этой проблемой, сделал интересный доклад. 
3. Не was finishing the experiment from 5 to 7 o'clock. 
finishing - Participle 1 входит в состав сказуемого, видовременная форма Past Continuous Active 
Он заканчивал свой опыт с 5 до 7 часов. 

Образец выполнения 3 (к упр.4) 
1. They were finishing their work when I came in. 
were finishing - Past Continuous Active от глагола to finish, came in - Past Indefinite Active от глагола to come in. Они заканчивали работу, когда я вошел. 

Образец выполнения 4 (к упр.7) 
1. The work ▼I am finishing now is difficult. 
(бессоюзное определительное придаточное предложение) 
Работа, которую я сейчас заканчиваю, очень трудная. 
2. 1 know that the structure of this compound is well investigated. 
(придаточное дополнительное предложение с союзом that) 
Я знаю, что структура этого соединения хорошо изучена. 

ВАРИАНТ I. 
I. Прочитайте и устно переведите на русский язык весь текст. 

COMPOSITION OF AIR 

1. The scientific studies of atmosphere composition began in the 18th century. 2. The composition of atmosphere was discussed by early chemists all over the world. 3. The ancient Greek regarded air as the composition of four elements. 4. The first chemists to make measurements of composition of atmosphere were Johseph Priestley and Antonie Lavoisier. 
5. In the late 19 and early 20th centuries interest to the composition of air moved on from studying to consideration of how the concentrations of gases in the atmosphere changed over time and the chemical processes which create and destroy compounds in air. 6. Scientists understood that air was not a single substance. 7. It was made of a number of gases mixed together. 8. It was impossible to stop gases mixing together. 9. “Air” is the name we give to the mixture of gases which make up the Earth atmosphere. 10. The air doesn’t stop suddenly, so it is impossible to say exactly how deep the atmosphere is. 
11. Speaking about air modern chemists say that it is a mixture of nitrogen and oxygen with small quantity of other gases. 12. The composition of air varies and depends on plants and animals controlling the amounts of oxygen and carbon dioxide by photosynthesis and respiration. 13. Local additions to the composition of air depend on the surroundings, including wind direction, time of time day and season of the year. 16. Scientists studying the composition of air take into account such factors as natural processes and human activities. 
14. Nowadays the main gases in the air are oxygen and nitrogen. 15. The important reasons to be noted are interactions between the atmosphere and living organisms. 16. Some of these changes are harmful to human health, crops and ecosystems. 27. Scientists have to underline such problems as acid rain, photochemical smog and global warming. 18. In the 21st century the composition of air is studied as one part of the Earth system. 19. In order to synthesize and test theoretical understanding of atmosphere computers and satellites are used. 
20. Observations of chemical composition tell us about changes in atmospheric composition over time. 21. A series of measurements show a steady rise in the concentration of carbon dioxide and global air pollution. 


II. Расставьте пункты плана согласно логике текста: 
1. Global air pollution. 
2. The history of studying air. 
3. Air is a complex substance and it is important to know its 
composition. 
4. Composition of air and what it depends on. 
5. Relationship between air and surrounding world. 
III. Выпишите из текста предложения, содержащие инфинитив и 
предложения с причастием 1, укажите их функции. Предложения 
переведите. 

IV. Перепишите предложения; подчеркните глагол-сказуемое и определите его видовременную форму и залог; напишите форму инфинитива. Предложения переведите. (См. образец 3). 
1. Robert Koch showed that specific diseases are caused by specific 
microorganisms. 
2. The drug is being monitored for possible complications. 
3. Our scientists made great attempts in search of new cardiac drugs 
last year. 

V. Перепишите предложения, подчеркните глагол “to do” и определите является ли он смысловым, вспомогательным или словом -заместителем. 
Предложения переведите. 
1. The researcher often does many experiments to obtain good results. 
2. The doctor works in the health care system as pharmacist does. 
3. They do not often use drugs for headache. 
VI. Выпишите предложения, где конструкции с глаголами 
«to have», «to be » выражают долженствование, предложения переведите. 
1. New drugs have to be tested for safety and efficacy. 
2. The liver has many functions vital to the body. 
3. The tablets are to be taken during or after meal with a little liquid. 
4. Plants are highly important sources of food for man. 
5. This drug is indicated after the consultation with the physician. 

VII. Перепишите предложения, подчеркните в каждом придаточное предложение; подчинительный союз или союзное слово обведите кружком; при бессоюзном подчинении укажите на место, где мог бы находиться опущенный союз. Предложения переведите. (См. образец 4). 
1. An element is a substance which consists of only one kind of atom. 
2. Only few scientists of that time knew that Mendeleyev had discovered the Periodic law. 
3. The new medicine the doctor speaks about has beneficial therapeutic effect. 
4. Researchers know the investigation of these phenomena will get good results. 
5. Pharmacist who works at the chemist’s department is called pharmacist-technologist. 


ВАРИАНТ II. 
1. Прочитайте и устно переведите на русский язык весь текст. 

OXYGEN 

1. Oxygen was first discovered by Swedish pharmacist Carl Wilhelm Scheele who realized that air is a mixture of substances, one of which is a life-giving substance. 2. He had produced oxygen gas while heating mercuric oxide and various nitrates by about 1772, but his finding was not published until after the independent discovery by Joseph Priestly. 3. Joseph Priestly found that the gas he discovered could support combustion for longer than ordinary air. 4. The name of oxygen was created by Antoinie Laurent Lavoisier. 5. He used experiments on oxidation to prove that substance discovered by Priestley and Scheele was a chemical substance. 
6. Isolating oxygen from air Antoinie Lavoisier emphasized the role of oxygen in combustion and respiration. 7. He was the first to give explanation of combustion. 8. Perhaps the most familiar reaction of oxygen with other materials is combustion. 9. Some of Lavisher’s most important experiments examined the nature of combustion or burning. 10. Through these experiments, he demonstrated that burning is a process that involves the combination of a substance with oxygen. 
11. Oxygen is the third most abundant chemical element in the universe, after hydrogen and helium. 12. All air breathing microorganisms would die within a few minutes if the supply of oxygen in the atmosphere stopped suddenly. 13. The unusually high concentration of oxygen gas on Earth is the result of the oxygen cycle. 14. This biogeochemical cycle describes the movement of oxygen within and between its three main reservoirs on Earth: the atmosphere, the biosphere, and the lithosphere. 15. The main driving factor of the oxygen cycle is photosynthesis, which is responsible for modern Earth's atmosphere. 16. Photosynthesis releases oxygen into the atmosphere, while respiration and decay remove it from the atmosphere. 
17. Oxygen is a highly reactive element and is able to combine with most other elements. 18. It is essential for human life because most of the chemical activities to be taken in the cells can occur only in the presence of oxygen. 19. Combining with an element, oxygen forms a product called an oxide. 
20. Water is the oxide of hydrogen and the most abundant oxygen compound. 21. Some elements readily form oxides at standard conditions for temperature and pressure. 22. The surface of aluminum and titanium are oxidized in the presence of air. 23. Thin film of oxide coating them protects the metal and slows corrosion. 
24. Oxygen can be produced through the electrolyses of water. 25. Uses of oxygen include the production of steel, plastics and textiles, oxygen therapy, spaceflights and diving. 26. Oxygen therapy is used to treat pneumonia and heart disorders. 27. There are many organic solvents that contain oxygen, including: acetone, methanol, ethanol, acetic acid and formic acid. 
28. Oxygen, silicon, aluminum and hydrogen together constitute approximately 80 percent of the Earth’s crust. 

II. Расставьте пункты плана согласно логике текста: 
1. Preparation and usage of oxygen. 
2. Explanation of combustion. 
3. Chemical properties of oxygen. 
4. Historical data on discovery of oxygen. 

III. Выпишите из текста предложения, содержащие инфинитив и 
предложения с причастием 1, укажите их функции. Предложения 
переведите.

IV. Перепишите предложения; подчеркните глагол-сказуемое и определите его видовременную форму и залог; напишите форму инфинитива. Предложения переведите. (См. образец 3). 
1. English is spoken not only in Great Britain but also in many countries. 
2. Epidemiologists are now looking for evidence that virus is being passed from person to person. 

3. The exact amount of water in person depends on person’s age, sex and build. 

V. Перепишите предложения, подчеркните глагол «to do» и определите является ли он смысловым, вспомогательным или словом заместителем. 
Предложения переведите. 
1. The chemist, like other scientists did attempts to understand the secrets of nature. 
2. The therapeutic effect lasts as long as the period of storage does. 
3. Does the duration of treatment depend upon the severity of illness? 

VI. Выпишите предложения, где конструкции с глаголами «to have», «to be » выражают долженствование, предложения переведите. 
1. Water is one of the most widespread and vitally important 
substances. 
2. The student was carrying out the experiment for many hours. 
3. During treatment patients with renal insufficiency have to follow the 
doctor’s recommendations. 
4. Our analytical laboratory has modern equipment. 
5. Every pharmacist is to know the safety rules. 

VII. Перепишите предложения, подчеркните в каждом придаточное предложение; подчинительный союз или союзное слово обведите кружком; при бессоюзном подчинении укажите на место, где мог бы находиться опущенный союз. Предложения переведите. (См. образец 4). 
1. The article the student referred to was published in the newspaper. 
2. Henry Cavendish discovered that water consists of a definite proportion of hydrogen and oxygen. 
3. The investigators have obtained alkaloids in pure form whose therapeutic properties are very important. 
4. The specialists realized the studying the properties of new drug is of great importance. 
5. When medicines are taken after meal they lose their effect or their effect decreases by their interaction with food. 




ВАРИАНТ III. 
I. Прочитайте и устно переведите на русский язык весь текст, 

NITROGEN 
1. The study of the composition of atmosphere led to the discovery of nitrogen. 2. Nitrogen was discovered by Scottish chemist and physician Daniel Rutherford in 1772. 3. While removing oxygen and carbon dioxide from air he showed the result of its action on combustion and living organisms. 4. “Lifeless not supporting respiration and combustion” that was how the chemists saw the main property of nitrogen. 5. Henry Cavendish studied the properties of nitrogen in detail. 6. He was one of the first scientists to believe that nitrogen is a component of ordinary air. 7. Compounds of nitrogen were known in the middle Ages. 8. The mixture of nitric and hydrochloric acids was known for its ability to dissolve gold. 
9. The nitrogen cycle is one of the most important processes in nature for living organisms. 10. Nitrogen compounds to be found in food and organic fertilizers are the basic building blocks in all animal world. 
11. Animals eat the plants containing nitrogen converting them into proteins. 12. Plant requires nutrients that are essential for the growth of healthy plants and crops. 13. Most of the required nutrients are not found in the soil and so to promote the plant growth artificial fertilizers are used. 
14. For this purpose humans are involved in the nitrogen cycle in several ways. 15. One of the most significant roles people play in the nitrogen cycle is by the introduction of nitrogen containing fertilizers to the soil. 
16. Nitrogen is the largest single constituent of Earth’s atmosphere. 
17. One has to keep in mind that nitrogen is the 7th most abundant chemical element by mass in the universe. 
18. Nitrogen gas has a great variety of uses. 19. Nitrogen containing drugs include all major classes of antibiotics. 20. To regulate blood pressure and heart action, physicians recommend taking organic nitrate drugs like nitroglycerin. 21. To preserve the freshness of packed food liquid nitrogen is used as a refrigerant. 

II. Расставьте пункты плана согласно логике текста: 
1. Nitrogen in medicine. 
2. The history of the nitrogen study. 
3. Nitrogen in the world crust. 
4. The significance of the nitrogen. 

III. Выпишите из текста предложения, содержащие инфинитив и предложения с причастием 1, укажите их функции. Предложения переведите.
IV. Перепишите предложения; подчеркните глагол-сказуемое и определите его видовременную форму и залог; напишите форму инфинитива. Предложения переведите. (См. образец 3). 
1. Some medicines are taken before and some after meal. 
2. Chemistry is being increasingly used in all branches of chemistry. . 
3. A higher temperature indicates some disorder in your body. 
V. Перепишите предложения, подчеркните глагол «to do» и определите, является ли он смысловым, вспомогательным или словом заместителем. 
Предложения переведите. 
1. The chemist, like other scientists did attempts to understand the secrets of nature. 
2. The therapeutic effect continues as long as the period of storage does. 
3. Does the duration of treatment depend on severity of the illness? 
VI. Выпишите предложения, где конструкции с глаголами «to have», «to be» выражают долженствование, предложения переведите. 
1. The human body is much more-complicated than any machine. 
2. Every chemist analyst is to keep working place clean. 
3. Alcohol has a very negative influence on the effect of medicines. 
4. Even those few who are never ill sometimes have to visit a doctor. 
5. The student is finishing his work. 
VII. Перепишите предложения, подчеркните в каждом придаточное предложение; подчинительный союз или союзное слово обведите кружком; при бессоюзном подчинении укажите на место, где мог бы находиться опущенный союз. Предложения переведите. (См. образец 4). 
1. Few scientists of that time knew that Mendeleyev had discovered the Periodic law. 
2. The physician considers the side effects of this drug are mild in nature. 
3. An element is a substance which contains only one kind of atom. 
4. The substance the oxygen acts upon is oxidized. 
5. When it is necessary to obtain alkaloids in pure state, two general processes are available. 


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