Контрольная работа по английскому языку N180
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"Using texts from three civilizations*, demonstrate how the worldview of ancient culture made a transition from pre-axial thought to axial thought." 
* Your three civilizations must include (1) Indian civilization and (2) the ancient Israelite Biblical corpus. For your third civilization you can choose between Greek or Chinese culture 
B. GUIDELINES FOR WRITING THE ESSAY: 
(1) Use the following texts and references to make your case: 
INDIA: the Purusha and Creation texts of the Veda and Vedantic brahman-atman texts (Worlds of History: Upanishad selection p 94, Svetasvatara p201.) 
ANCIENT ISRAEL: the first two chapters of Genesis, Genesis 22, and the Amos and Isaiah texts. You can also use the Gilgamesh texts for pre-axial source material (Worlds of History, 49-58). 
ANCIENT GREECE: the Crito dialogue, lecture notes; Worlds of History pp 84-91 (essay by William H. McNeill). 
ANCIENT CHINA: texts from Legalism, Confucianism, Daoism (Worlds of History, pp.138-148). [Optional: Valerie Hansen essay, Worlds of History pp. 126-133.] 
(2) METHOD. 
Use the following questions to generate ideas: 
• To what extent are these all "axial" texts? 
• To what extent are they monotheistic, monist or henotheistic? 
• How do they envisage the source of morality? 
• How open are they to cultures outside themselves (i.e. are they local or universal)? 
• When were they written? 
• To whom are they addressed? 
• what axial age features can you detect in before/after texts? (remember: mythos/logos; being/non-being etc...refer to your first lecture notes) 

These questions are meant to guide you. You won't be able to answer all these questions and can choose a subset of them to answer and steer the structure of your essay. They should guide you in finding key themes for the essay 

Make sure, too, that you analyze the title and answer that question and not some other of your own imagining! 
(3) ESSAY STRUCTURE 
• The essay has 5 parts: Introduction, Body, Conclusion. 
• The body should consists of 6 paragraphs: three 2-paragraph sections, 1 section for each civilization. 
• Using the 'method questions' above, try to come up with 2-3 general ideas for each section which you describe as clearly and simply as possible. 
• Use short quotes or paraphrases to make your point (not more than fifteen words -- you must not waste the word count [see essay length below] with other people's words). Prepare the quotes in advance. You can also refer to material in the lecture notes, including pre-axial material (Gilgamesh, the Veda). Each body paragraph should be between 8-12 sentences. 
• Please refer to the model answers and essay-writing advice for further information. 
(4) ESSAY LENGTH 
• the text of the essay should be 650-750 words 
• in addition, you should write a bibliography (список литературы) 
• you should also use footnotes (сноски) for quotes 
• bibliography and footnotes are not part of the word count 


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