Контрольная работа по английскому языку N135
Для удобства и лучшего понимания предмета предлагаем Вашему вниманию работы, не завершенные, но по которым уже частично раскрыт принцип их решения.
Мы с радостью поможем Вам решить заинтересовавшие Вас задания, объясним все нюансы доступно и в кратчайшие сроки.
Написание аннотации к научной статье
Research Paper Abstracts
A research paper (or journal) abstract is a short account of a research paper placed before it. In contrast to the abstracts, which appear in abstracting journals, the research article abstract is written by the author of a paper. The "relatives" of the journal abstract are: the summary, the conference abstract, and the synopsis—a shorter version of a document that usually mirrors the organization of the full text. [From Yakhontova, …]
The journal abstract performs a number of important functions. It:
- serves as a short version of the paper, which provides the most important information;
- helps, therefore, the potential audience to decide whether to read the whole article or not;
- prepares the reader for reading a full text by giving an idea of what to expect;
- serves as a reference after the paper has been read.
Nowadays, abstracts are widely used in electronic storage and retrieval systems and by on-line information services. Their role in dissemination and circulation of written research products is further increasing in the information age.
The journal abstract has certain textual and linguistic characteristics. It:
- consists of a single paragraph;
- contains 4-10 full sentences;
- tends to avoid the first person and to use impersonal active constructions (e.g., "This research shows . . . ") or passive voice (e.g., "The data were analyzed . . .");
- rarely uses negative sentences;
- avoids using acronyms, abbreviations, and symbols (unless they are defined in the abstract itself);
- does not cite by number or refer by number to anything from the
text of the paper.
The most frequent tense used in abstracts is the present tense. It is used to state facts, describe methods, make comparisons, and give results, The past tense is preferred when reference is made to the author's own experiments, calculations, observations, etc.
Journal abstracts are often divided into informative and indicative abstracts. The informative abstract includes main findings and various specifics such as measurements or quantities. This type of abstract often accompanies research reports and looks itself like a report in miniature,
Indicative abstracts indicate the subject of a paper. They provide a brief description without going into a detailed account. The abstracts of this type often accompany lengthy texts or theoretical papers. The combination of both types of journal abstracts, however, also exists.
The structure for the English journal abstract, as suggested by Mauro B. dos Santos (1996), includes the following moves:
- Situating the research (e.g., by stating current knowledge in the field
or a research problem).
- Presenting the research (e.g., by indicating its main purpose or main features).
- Describing its methodology.
- Summarizing the results.
- Discussing the research (by drawing conclusions and/or giving recommendations).
However, the rhetorical structure of journal abstracts may vary depending upon a research subject, field of investigation, and type of a paper.
- The article (paper, book, etc.) deals with…- Эта статья (работа, книга) касается…
- As the title implies the article describes…- Согласно названию, в статье описывается
- Lately … – За последнее время …
- The last few decades (months, years) have witnessed an increase of importance … - За последние десятилетия (месяцы, годы) возросло значение ...
- It (the article) gives a detailed analysis of …. - Она (статья) дает детальный анализ…
- Attempts are made to analyze, formulate … - Делаются попытки проанализировать, сформулировать …
- The results of the theoretical (experimental)study of … are presented – Приводятся результаты теоретического (экспериментального)исследования
- A theoretical (experimental) dependence of … vs… is formulated – Формулируется теоретическая (получеснная экспериментально) зависимость … от …
- Data are given about… - Приведены данные о …
- Attention is drawn to… - Обращается внимание на …
- Much attention is given to… - Большое внимание уделяется…
- It draws our attention to… - Она (статья, работа) привлекает наше внимание к…
- The difference between the terms…and…should be stressed - Следует подчеркнуть различие между терминами …и…
- It should be stressed (emphasized) that… - Следует подчеркнуть, что…
- The method proposed … etc. - Предлагаемый метод… и т.д.
- It is reported… - Сообщается…
- It is introduced …. - Вводится …
- It is shown that …. - Показано, что …
- It is dealt with …. - Рассматривается …
- It is provided for … - Обеспечивается …
- It is designed for …. - Предназначен для …
- It is examined, investigated … - Исследуется …
- It is analyzed … - Анализируется …
- It is formulated …. - Формулируется …
- It is specially noted… - Особенно отмечается…
- …is proposed - Предлагается…
- …are noted - Упоминаются…
- …are examined - Проверяются (рассматриваются)
- …are discussed - Обсуждаются…
- The article is of great help to … - Эта статья окажет большую помощь…
- The article is of interest to… - Эта статья представляет интерес для…
- Conclusions are drawn…. - Делаются выводы …
- Conclusions regarding … are made – Делаются вывожы о том, что …
- Recommendations are given … - Даны рекомендации …
- Recommendations for … are presented – Приводятся рекомендации по …
PHILOSOPHY AND STRATEGY
OF TECHNICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION
- D. Moskovchenko. Tomsk
University of Control Systems and
E!mail: office @tasur.edu.ru
The problem of interaction between the
society and university innovation engineering education is viewed in the article. A special attention is paid to the cosmological aspect
of the present day engineering training.
The major emphasis is placed on three issues: the quality of knowledge of engineering graduates; their practical performance in a contemporary society, and their expectations in the course of career development.
ASPECTS OF EDUCATION
A.G. Velichkov, G.S. Pirogov, V.P.
Ivachenko, A. G. Yasev
National Metallurgical Academy of the Ukraine
The paper examines prerequisites for
improvement of education quality management and relevant new aspects of such management. The paper focuses on the suggestion to introduce and use the category of development quality (this concerns both the individual and the specialist during his\her training at the university). Some indicators for quality assessment and their management mechanisms have been proposed and proven. The article is addressed to teachers and administrators of educational institutions.
AT TOMSK POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY: AN EXPERIENCE OF TRAINING ELITE PETROLEUM ENGINEERS
Yu.P. Pokholkov, V.P. Mangazeev, A.I. Chuchalin, Brian G.D. Smart, I.N. Koshovkin
This paper shows how Glasgow
Caledonian University, UK, has been driven by economic necessity, as well as the interests of the teaching staff, to search for new ways to deliver teaching material in an effort to increase funding over and above a governmental contribution that is dwindling year on year. In effect, the university has had to innovate. The second part of the paper examines the teaching of entrepreneurism claiming that teaching is really a form of knowledge transfer. By viewing our profession in this different way, one can think of new ways to implement strategy. Lastly, one of the authors, a Head of English Department from Tomsk Polytechnic University, Russia, on second-ment to Glasgow Caledonian University, discusses the new teaching methods employed by the university and comments on how they help to stimulate entrepreneurial thinking and promote cross-disciplinary understanding.
- A NECESSARY ELEMENT OF
Chuchalin A.I., Kryuchkov Yu.Yu., Soloviev M.A., Tyurin Yu.I., Chernov I.P.
Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, Russia
Innovation processes spreading in our country require a new generation of specialists. It is necessary to instruct such specialists at universities widely practicing new technologies and teaching methods and capable of changing the system of education with the requirements of information society taken into account. We offer to introduce a new kind of academic activity into the educational process at a technical university - problem-oriented education that enables students to develop creative abilities, the skills of effective teamwork and the ability to create competitive products and advance them on the market. In this paper some directions of innovation activity in the system of engineering education are analyzed, some approaches based on the personal peculiarities of students are suggested. The scheme of innovative engineering education is suggested which takes into account different technologies and
directions of specialist training.
- Below is the shortened abstract of a research paper in the field of legal studies. Put the verbs in parentheses into appropriate tense forms.
This paper (to provide) a study of the use of law to invoke and protect the interests of poorest consumers of the privatized water industry. It (to focus) upon the introduction of pre-payment devices and the legal action to prevent their use. The context of the study (to lie) in the privatization of water industry in 1989 . . . . The claims which (to surround) the application of the policy (to be) familiar: private ownership produced efficiency, effective management, and attentiveness to customers' needs . . . . This article (to find) the claim to be false. It (to consider) the social engineering role of law in attempting to protect the interests of poorest consumers . . . . It (to conclude) by suggesting that not only is access to the law differentiated by power and resources, but that compliance with it is also mediated by the same inequality.
- Sequence the jumbled parts of this abstract from the field of anthropology.
(A) This paper argues that this assumption obscures the multiple dimensions along which core/periphery distinctions can be measured and ignores the possibility of mutual influence and interdependence among interacting societies at all size and complexity levels. This confusion is particularly evident in the study of Southeastern Mesoamerica (adjoining portions of Guatemala, Honduras, and El Salvador), usually viewed as peripheral to lowland Maya core states during the late Classic period (A.D. 600-950).
(B) The essay concludes with an overview of late Classic lowland Maya/non-Maya interactions in the Southeast and some general suggestions for future research.
(C) Archeoiogical investigations on the margins of "high civilization" have traditionally been guided by the assumption that polities in such zones were peripheral to core states.
(D) In an attempt to advance the study of polities bordering complex and extensive sociopolitical systems, a general model is outlined which sets out to identify the different dimensions of peripherality and specify the conditions under which various sorts of core/ periphery relations are likely to develop. Late Classic political, economic, demographic, and cultural patterns from the Naco Valley, northwestern Honduras, are then examined to determine how this area was linked to lowland Maya core states (represented here by Copan and Quirigua) and what effects the societies had on indigenous developments.