Контрольная работа по английскому языку 11288
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HERMAN VON HELMHOLTZ

(1821-1894)

  1. Прочитайте и устно переведите на русский язык весь текст.

Sensations of Tone

  1. Hermann von Helmholtz was a German physician and physicist who made significant contributions in several scientific fields. 2. The largest German association of research institutions, «the Helmholtz Association», is named after him.
  2. Helmholtz was born in Potsdam as the son of the local Gymnasium headmaster, Ferdinand Helmholtz, who had studied classical philology and philosophy, and who was a close friend of the publisher and philosopher Immanuel Hermann Fich-te. 4. Helmholtz’s work is influenced by the philosophy of Johann Gottlieb Fichte and Immanuel Kant.
  3. As a young man, Helmholtz was interested in natural science, but his fa-ther wanted him to study medicine at the Charité because there was financial sup-port for medical students. 6. Hemholtz’s first academic position was as a teacher of Anatomy at the Academy of Arts in Berlin in 1848. 7. Then he moved to take a post of associate professor of physiology at the Prussian University of Königsberg, where he was appointed in 1849. 8. In 1855 he accepted a full professorship of anatomy and physiology at the University of Bonn. 9. He was not particularly hap-py in Bonn, however, and three years later he transferred to the University of Hei-delberg, in Baden, where he served as professor of physiology.
  4. His first important scientific achievement was an 1847 scientific work on the conservation of energy, was written in the context of his medical studies and philosophical background. 11. He discovered the principle of conservation of ener-gy while studying muscle metabolism.12. He tried to demonstrate that no energy is lost in muscle movement, motivated by the implication that there were no vital forces necessary to move a muscle. 13. It was a rejection of the speculative tradi-

tion of Naturphilosophie which was at that time a dominant philosophical para-digm in German physiology.

  1. Helmholtz was a pioneer in the scientific study of human vision and au-dition. 15. He coined the term “psychophysics,” to capture the distinction between the measurement of physical stimuli and their effect on human perception.16. For example, the amplitude of a sound wave can be varied, causing the sound to appear louder or softer, but a linear step in sound pressure amplitude does not result in a linear step in perceived loudness. 17. The physical sound needs to be increased ex-ponentially in order for equal steps to seem linear, a fact that is used in current electronic devices to control volume. 18. Helmholtz paved the way in experi-mental studies on the relationship between the physical energy (physics) and its appreciation (psychology), with the goal in mind to develop “psychophysical laws.”
  2. In 1851, Helmholtz revolutionized the field of ophthalmology with the invention of the ophthalmoscope; an instrument used to examine the inside of the human eye. This made him world-famous .20. Helmholtz’s interests at that time were focused on the physiology of the senses. 21. His main publication, titled “Handbook of Physiological Optics or Treatise on Physiological Optics”, provided empirical theories on depth perception, color vision, and motion perception, and became the fundamental reference work in his field during the second half of the nineteenth century.
  3. In 1863, Helmholtz published «Sensations of Tone», once again demon-strating his interest in the physics of perception. 23. Helmholtz invented the Helmholtz resonator to identify the various frequencies or pitches of the pure sine wave components of complex sounds containing multiple tones.24. The more knowledge he obtained in the university, the more investigations he made, in the sphere of natural science, ophthalmology, physics, , the more he was sure in the right choosing of direction of direction of activity.
  4. This genius died on September 8, 1894. 26. The Marble monument of Helmholtz was built in front of the University of Berlin.

Выполните следующие задания письменно.

  1. Расставьте пункты плана согласно логике текста:
  2. The publishing of the work “Sensations of Tone”
  3. The breakthrough in ophthalmology
  4. Career. The first academic position of Herman von Helmholtz
  5. Early life and education
  6. The first important scientific achievement of Herman von Helmholtz

III. Ответьте письменно на следующие вопросы:

1.What was Hermann Helmholtz?

2.When and where was he born?

3.What was his father?

4.What was Herman Helmholtz interested in as a young man?

5.What was his first academic position?

6.When did he accept a full professorship of anatomy and physiology at the Uni-versity of Bonn?

7.Helmholtz was a pioneer in the scientific study of human vision and audition.

In which sphere was Herman Helmholtz a pioneer? What did Helmholtz study first?

  1. What did Herman Helmholtz invent in 1851?
  2. What is “the Helmholtz resonator”? What was it invented for?
  3. When did Herman Helmholtz die?
  4. Выпишите из данных предложений предложение, где слово, оформ-ленное окончанием “s” служит:

а) показателем 3-го лица ед. числа глагола в Present Simple Active. Пред-ложение переведите. (Образец выполнения № 1)

  1. John arrives to Perm this evening.
  2. Optics is a science that deals with nature and laws of light.
  3. The changes of temperature have influenced the properties of substance.

б) признаком множественного числа имени существительного. Предло-жение переведите .

  1. Lynn`s father watches football on TV.
  2. A Patient gets some information about medicines in the pharmacy.
  3. Many chemical elements were discovered after the death of Mendeleev.

в) Выпишите из текста 1 предложение, где слово, оформленное оконча-нием “s” служит показателем притяжательного падежа имени существи-тельного. Предложение переведите.

  1. а) Выпишите из текста предложение с прилагательным в превосход-ной степени. Предложение переведите на русский язык. Напишите при-лагательное в положительной и сравнительной степени с переводом.

б) Выпишите из текста предложение, содержащее сравнительную кон-струкцию «the… the …». Предложение переведите на русский язык. (Об-разец выполнения № 2)

в) Напишите перевод следующих прилагательных, выделите суффиксы, с помощью которых они образованы.

sunny, resistant, passive, powerful, useless, convertible

  1. Напишите в три колонки номера прилагательных:

а)в положительной степени; в) в сравнительной степени; с)в превосход-ной степени.

  1. the most powerful 2. thick 3.good 4. the newest 5.impossible 6.more useful 7.the coolest 8. less 9.reliable 10. more intelligent 11.heavier 12.the slowest.

VII. а) Перепишите существительные, выделите суффиксы, при помощи которых они образованы. Существительные переведите на русский язык.

motherhood, revolution, movement, length, pianist, actor, wisdom

б) Определите какой частью речи являются ниже перечисленные слова: a) существительное, b)прилагательное, c)глагол

Например: а)0,… b)…..; c)….;

  1. classmate
  2. scientist;2. classify; 3.impossible; 4.development ; 5.create; 6. careful; 7.revolution; 8.disable; 9.painter ;10. operate; 11. kindness;12.reliable; 13. use-less;14. improvement; 15.graduate; 16.friendly ;17. clarify

VIII. Выпишите из предложений местоимения и определите их вид: a. – личное; b- притяжательное; c- отрицательное; d – указательное; e- во-просительное. Предложения переведите на русский язык. (Образец для выполнения №3)

  1. He wants me to work harder.
  2. Nothing is done.
  3. This book is mine.
  4. Why are you looking under the table?
  5. Those two girls seem to be gorgeous.
  6. Перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обра-щая внимание на слова – заместители.
  7. The phonology of Korean is similar to that of both Japanese and Chinese, perhaps slightly favouring the latter.
  8. The first chapter was very difficult, the second one less so.
  9. Even the fastest of the heavy molecules move slowly compared with the light ones.

4 Не stayed there much longer than he usually did.

5 Today he is reading better than he did yesterday.

  1. Выпишите из текста 1 предложение со сказуемым в Past Simple Active и 1 предложение в Past Simple Passive. Подчеркните глагол-сказуемое и определите его видовременную форму и залог; напишите форму инфинитива. Предложения переведите. (Образец выполнения №4)
  2. Поставьте глагол-сказуемое в Future Simple Active/Passive. Предло-жения перепишите и переведите на русский язык.
  3. She (to pass) exams in 3 months.
  4. New medicinal goods (to produce) in the near future.

XII. Найдите в каждом предложении причастия и определите его вид (Participle I или Participle II): a- Participle I; b - Participle II. Предложе-ния перепишите и переведите на русский язык. (Образец для выполнения №5)

  1. While studying substances we determine their physical and chemical properties.
  2. The results of this reaction were recorded in a special journal.
  3. Being a real friend he always helps me in difficult situations.
  4. You should learn the words written on the blackboard.
  5. When carrying out the research we used different equipment.

XIII. Подчеркните в каждом предложении Причастие II и определите его функцию: а) обстоятельство; b) часть сказуемого; с)определение . Предложения переведите на русский язык. (Образец выполнения№ 6)

  1. If boiled water turns into vapour.
  2. Ann has been working in the university since 2015.

3.Books read in childhood are like old friends.

XIV. Выберите правильный вариант ответа, обращая внимание на осо-бенности перевода оборота «there+be»

1.There …. about fifty people on the party yesterday.

  1. will be b.is c. was d. were

2.There ….. a teacher and two students in the room.

  1. were b. was c. is d. are
  2. Из перечисленных слов составьте вопросительные предложения. Предложения напишите и переведите на русский язык.

Did1/ where2/ Albert Einstein3 / to4/ move5/ study6/ physics7?

12 стр.

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