Задание 1. Выполните письменный перевод профессионально-ориентированного текста.
Wilhelm Wundt is generally acknowledged as the founder of experimental psychology. Wundt offered the first formal psychology course (in physiological psychology) and wrote what is often considered the most important book in the history of psychology, Principles of Physiological Psychology. It was Wundt, too, who established the first psychological laboratory at the University of Leipzig, Germany in 1879.
In this laboratory, Wundt and his followers undertook the study of psychology, which to them consisted of the study of experience. Thus, they tried to break down conscious experiences into basic elements. Their chief method was termed introspection, which consisted of monitoring and reporting on the contents of consciousness. If you had been one of Wundt’s participants trained in introspection, you might have been presented with the sound of a clicking metronome. You would have focused solely on the clicks and report only your immediate reactions to them – your basic sensations and feelings.
Although Wundt never referred to his school of thought as “structuralism,” Edward Titchener, one of his followers, brought Wundt’s ideas to America. Titchener established a psychological laboratory and coined the term structuralism to embody Wundt’s ideas. Like Wundt, structuralists believed that, just as the elements hydrogen and oxygen combine to form the compound water, the “elements” of conscious experience combine to form the “compounds” of the mind. They sought to identify the elements of thought through introspection and then determine how these elements combined to form the whole of experience. Thus, their study focused on the investigation of thought processes and the structure of the mind.
Structuralists inaugurated psychology as a science and established the importance of studying mental processes. However, psychologists, especially in America, became impatient with structuralism.
They felt it was limited to only one area of behavior and had few practical applications. American psychologists interested in applying psychological findings to practical situations began a new school of psychology known as functionalism.
Задание 2. Найдите в тексте профессионально-ориентированные слова и выражения, запишите их перевод и контекстное употребление в таблицу:
Задание 3. Переведите:
- Психика – «свойство высокоорганизованной материи».
- Формируются физические и психические способности человека.
- Психологии должно быть отведено особое место.
- Человек отважился на то, чтобы с помощью мышления начать исследовать само мышление.
- В психологии как бы сливаются субъект и объект познания.
- Научиться управлять своими психическими процессами, функциями, способностями – грандиозная задача.
- Такой же процесс можно проследить в масштабе всего человечества.
Задание 4. Ответьте на вопросы:
- What exactly should students know about psychology and why is it considered so complex?
- What words come into your mind when you hear the word “structuralism?”
- Who is generally acknowledged as the father of psychology?
- What kind of a hospital is a psychiatric hospital?
- What is the chief method in structuralism? What is the essence of this method?
- Who coined the term structuralism?
- Why did some psychologists especially those in America become impatient with structuralism?
Задание 5. Напишите небольшое эссе на иностранном языке (10-15 предложений) на одну из тем:
“I suppose it is tempting, if the only tool you have is a hammer, to treat everything as if it were a nail.” – Abraham Maslow, Toward a Psychology of Being
“Every man takes the limits of his own field of vision for the limits of the world.” – Arthur Schopenhauer , Studies in Pessimism: The Essays
“There is no psychology; there is only biography and autobiography.”– Thomas Szasz.